The central nervous system is the complex network of nerves and their associated tissues that control a wide variety of functions, including the following: sensory perception, motor function, autonomic regulation, learning, memory formation, sleep-wake cycles (circadian rhythm), emotion expression/regulation. It is also important to note that a CNS disorder can manifest itself in many different ways across different body organ systems. For example, a child may have seizures as the primary CNS manifestation; however, if that child also has an intellectual disability associated with prenatal exposure to valproic acid, the CNS should be considered a source of the in addition to further discussion.
Table of Contents
The Risk Factors of CNS Birth Defects
The CNS has a significant impact on the development of all body systems. Therefore, early detection of CNS developmental abnormalities is crucial, as many birth defects can be detected and treated early in life. In addition, the majority of genetic disorders with CNS involvement can be detected prenatally through amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS).\
The genetic causes involved in CNS abnormalities are numerous. The most common CNS birth defect is spina bifida, or failure of the spinal column to close properly around the spinal cord. This defect can be detected with routine ultrasound and/or other diagnostic tests such as amniocentesis. Spina bifida is linked with lower IQ, developmental delay, and learning disabilities; however, many children do very well with appropriate treatment and support.
Many of these CNS birth defects are associated with other disorders, including intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and ADHD. Some are also linked with certain environmental factors such as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and prenatal exposure to valproic acid [VPA].
Overall, the most common CNS birth defect is spina bifida. This defect can be detected with routine ultrasound and/or other diagnostic tests such as chorionic villous sampling (CVS).
Central nervous system birth defects can be detected prenatally through amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS). In addition to allowing prenatal diagnosis, CVS will also allow early treatment of any abnormalities seen in the fetus.
Having a clear understanding of the different presentations of CNS disorders may help to organize the differential diagnosis process. Disorders that are easily recognized and identifiable in infants and children may be diagnosed earlier than those subtle in appearance. Therefore, it is crucial to receive a thorough history from the parents regarding their child’s development and physical examination findings.
Schools offer many resources for parents to learn about normal and abnormal brain development and how certain CNS disorders manifest themselves in children. For example, institutions provide a wealth of information on the following topics: normal brain development, abnormal brain development, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of CNS abnormalities in children. You will also get a guide to normal physical examination findings. Some others have a special section for families dealing with problems related to traumatic brain injuries.
Many pediatricians offer courses or refer you to other sources for parents who want to learn about normal and abnormal brain development. In addition, sub-specialties exist within the field of pediatrics that specialize in one specific disease. Moreover, it is important to remember that there are numerous different forms of neurological syndromes. Therefore, it is essential to speak with specialized providers regarding the diagnosis and management of any given condition.
Some important sub-specialties/disciplines within the field of pediatrics are:
Geriatric Medicine is a sub-specialty within pediatrics that focuses on the care of children from infancy through adolescence and into adulthood. Along with pediatricians, other physicians may also practice geriatric medicine. These physicians play an important role in making decisions about the treatment of children that have become adults. Physician coordination with other healthcare professionals is often essential when caring for young or older people throughout life stages. There are many different types of care for children and adolescents necessary to ensure the person is receiving adequate health care in the home. The goals of geriatric medicine are to help these individuals reach their health care goals.
Physical therapy is a sub-specialty within pediatrics that focuses on patient management regarding movement and physical function. Physical therapists help to control and treat many kinds of movement problems. They are experts in assessment and planning, use physical interventions including exercise, massage, positioning, and bracing treatments. Physical therapists also provide information about the home environment to help patients heal or maintain their ability to move as they wish in their own home. Physical therapy can also help patients recover after an injury, surgery, or other illness.
Pediatric physical therapy involves the treatment of children to maintain and improve their physical functions and abilities. It differs from physical therapy that is given to adults in many ways. Physical therapists for infants, children, and adolescents use a combination of exercises and treatments to help patients achieve their health care goals. These goals may include managing pain, improving the function of joints and muscles, maintaining bone strength, healing from injuries and illness, or promoting healthy growth.
Pediatric orthopedics (ortho-pediatrics) is a sub-specialty within pediatrics that focuses on the care of children from birth through adolescence. Physicians who practice pediatric orthopedics are especially trained and experienced in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders of the lower extremities, spinal deformities, and scoliosis. In addition to physicians, other healthcare providers may also practice pediatric orthopedics. These providers play an important role in making decisions about the treatment of children that have become adults. Physician coordination with other healthcare professionals is often essential when caring for young or older people throughout life stages.
Geriatric psychiatry is a sub-specialty within psychiatry that focuses on the care of children from infancy through adolescence and into adulthood. Both child psychiatrists and adult psychiatrists can specialize in geriatric psychiatry, which is sometimes called “psycho-geriatrics.” Physicians may participate in research on the causes, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders throughout life stages. Physicians who work with older adults help coordinate treatment among different health care providers as needed. They also help treat physical symptoms that are often found with psychiatric disorders. Geriatric psychiatry is also important in helping to prevent the progression of physical symptoms found with psychiatric disorders.
Pediatric surgery is a sub-specialty within pediatrics that focuses on the care of children from infancy through adolescence and into adulthood. The goals of pediatric surgery include preventing, controlling, and relieving pain, preventing deformity or failure of organs, treating cancer, correcting birth defects (including conditions causing short stature), and providing treatment for medical problems resulting from accidents or trauma.
Pediatric surgery is the branch of medicine that deals with managing children’s health issues during their life stages (from infancy through adolescence and adulthood). Surgeons help to manage conditions such as birth defects, cancer, and congenital deformities. In addition to physicians, other healthcare providers may also practice pediatric surgery. These providers play an important role in making decisions about the treatment of children that have become adults. Physician coordination with other healthcare professionals is often essential when caring for young or older people throughout life stages.
A long-term goal for the medical community is to improve the quality of life for older people and those with disabilities. There are many healthcare providers who are trained to help achieve this goal. Physicians and nurses are the core of this group, providing most of the direct care. However, other healthcare providers and non-medical professionals also play important roles in helping older people, and those with disabilities stay healthy, safe, and independent within their communities!
CMRC Hospital is the specialized provider for Long-term Care and rehabilitation services in the United Arab Emirates. With 2 main facilities in Abu Dhabi & Al Ain, which are designed in a hospital setup with a capacity of 90 beds each.
CMRC provides an interdisciplinary clinical approach for Pediatric Rehabilitation. The best rehabilitation services are not only our goal but our ultimate objective is to customize the care plan for each patient and make sure that the patient’s family and their members are integrated into the treatment plan.
Either you joined Abu Dhabi hospital or Al Ain hospital for any kind of our rehabilitation services or even for long-term care you will feel as if you are at #Your Second Home.