Traumatic Brain Injury

A traumatic brain injury is a type of injury to the head that disrupts normal functioning.

Treatment options depend on the severity and other factors but may include anything from surgery to medication or physical therapy (depending on what region of the brain has been injured).

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have a lot of negative effects on an individual’s life. This blog article will explore the different aspects of TBI and how they affect patients’ life in various ways.

Table of Contents

What is a Traumatic Brain Injury?

A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is any type of damage to your brain. It can happen when you fall, hit your head, or get hurt in a car accident. A TBI can change the way you think, move, see and hear.

Traumatic Brain Injury can be caused by several different events, such as an explosion or car accident. It is important to know the signs and symptoms so you will recognize if it applies in your situation.

Types of Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injuries are classified as closed or penetrating head injury.

A closed head injury occurs when the skull is not penetrated, and no object enters the cranium, but there may have been a brief period of unconsciousness. It’s a type of traumatic brain injury in which the skull remains intact. The damage caused by this kind of trauma happens because the force that causes it pushes on your brain rather than penetrating through it.

A penetrating head injury (PHI) can occur after an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue. This type of injury usually results in a loss of consciousness, coma, or permanent neurological damage. Penetrating head injuries typically result from gunshot wounds or sharp objects, such as bullets or knives. Bullet wounds can be located in the skull or scalp and can cause a wide range of damage to the brain.

Moreover, we can define three other categories of traumatic brain injuries, such as:

  • Mild Traumatic Brain Injury:
    • Fatigue
    • Physical problems such as balance and coordination 
    • Emotional problems such as irritability and depression
  • Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury: 
    • Inability to carry out daily activities due to cognitive difficulties like concentration or memory lapses 
  • Severe Traumatic Brain Injury:
    • Complete inability to function at all levels of daily life

Symptoms of severe traumatic brain injury range widely from mild to life-threatening but vary depending on where the impact was sustained on the head as well as how hard the patient was hit.

Causes of TBI

A traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be caused by a hit to the head, sudden movement of the body from an impact or blast.

There are numerous different causes of TBI. It all depends on the individual case of each patient. Your doctor has to be informed about specific circumstances in which the brain injury occurred. This way, the treatment process will be more effective and more likely to succeed.

Signs and Symptoms of TBI

The signs and symptoms of traumatic brain injury vary depending on severity but may include:

  • bruising around the eyes;
  • difficulty remembering recent events (amnesia);
  • confusion about time and place;
  • trouble understanding speech (especially when several people are talking at once);
  • slurred speech;
  • nausea/vomiting/loss of appetite; drowsiness/excessive sleepiness (sleep apnea).

Moreover, a patient suffering serious brain injury might show symptoms of severe brain damage by:

  • Loss of consciousness (LOC) is a symptom that should not be taken lightly. It can indicate many different things, but in the case of traumatic brain injury, it could mean severe trauma to the brain. When this happens, most likely because of an accident, there are risks for further damage to occur and more serious consequences down the line; therefore, it’s important to get medical attention as soon as possible.

Loss of consciousness is a common sign and symptom of traumatic brain injury. It can happen at any time following the injury, but it’s most likely to occur in the first 48 hours after the incident.

A person may lose consciousness for seconds or minutes as a result of head trauma, such as an auto accident or fall. The person will usually regain consciousness within 24 hours if there are no other serious medical complications that need immediate attention. In some cases, however, LOC can last up to three weeks without being associated with any other problems.

Treatment for TBI

In recent years, doctors have been studying how to treat traumatic brain injury (TBI). The results of this research are being applied in clinics and hospitals as new treatments are created. 

A good example is the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which uses electromagnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in targeted regions of the brain. TMS can be used on people with a variety of conditions such as depression, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and stroke. It has also been shown to help patients who suffer from migraines or epilepsy.

Another treatment that is gaining popularity for treating TBI is hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy delivers pure oxygen in high concentrations at pressure through the lungs during treatment.

Medications in Traumatic Brain Injury

The most common drug treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBI) depend on the severity of the injury. If a person sustains a mild TBI, they will typically receive drug therapy to prevent seizures and minimize cerebral edema. Seizures may result from hypoxia or hypercarbia, so drugs that prevent these conditions are often used in this case.

Drugs such as mannitol or dexamethasone are given to reduce ICP and increase blood flow to the brain tissue while also preventing further damage caused by additional swelling in response to trauma.

Physical Therapy in Traumatic Brain Injury

Physical therapy is often used in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. What is it? Physical therapists use treatments to help a person recover from an illness or injury, including the treatment of neurological disorders such as traumatic brain injuries.

A physical therapist will work with patients to help them relearn skills that they have lost due to their injury and then move on to new skills which are important for independent living.

It is important for people who suffer from TBIs to engage in physical therapy because it helps them maintain mobility and independence, thus making recovery easier.

Cognitive Therapy and TBI

Cognitive therapy is a treatment modality that has shown to be effective in the treatment of traumatic brain injury. Cognitive therapy focuses on helping patients relearn how to live with and cope with their TBI symptoms.

The goal of cognitive therapy is to help individuals learn skills they need to improve memory, attention, reasoning, problem-solving, and other cognitive abilities affected by the injury. The therapist will work closely with each patient individually during sessions as well as provide education about TBI for family members or caregivers.

Education and Training in Patients with TBI

Patients with TBI who come to a medical clinic will often be provided with education and training on how to help themselves recover from their injury.

A few examples of what patients might learn in this kind of therapy include: how to reduce stress levels, how to do breathing exercises, or what activities may trigger seizures. There are many other treatments that may also be used, like physical therapy or occupational therapy, as well as medications for pain management and depression.

Effect of TBI in Suffering Patients

A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant change in mental function due to an external force. TBI’s are classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the degree of impairment. A TBI can cause changes in personality and behavior, memory loss, mood swings, and more.

The effects of traumatic brain injury are not limited to the physical but also extend to mental health. The growing number of those who have suffered from TBI is evident in the rise in suicides and mental illness diagnoses. It’s hard to estimate exactly how severe the effect of trauma will be for each patient.

Sometimes, despite providing the patient with the best help and care possible, some side effects of suffering traumatic brain injury might stay with the patient forever. Some of the most common include:

  • Memory loss or difficulty with concentrating
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Slurred speech.


Traumatic brain injury is a serious medical condition that can have a profound impact on the life of an individual. It is important to understand the different types of traumatic brain injuries to be able to provide appropriate care and support for those who are suffering from them.

An individual who has sustained this type of injury should seek immediate medical attention and avoid attempting any activities that could potentially worsen their condition.

Only the individualized care and immediate help provided by medical staff can ensure that the suffering patient can get their normal life back.

While in more severe cases, it might not be possible, the goal should always be to help the patient get their normal life back.



CMRC Hospital is the specialized provider for Long-term Care and rehabilitation services in the United Arab Emirates. With 2 main facilities in Abu Dhabi & Al Ain, which are designed in a rehabilitation and long-term care hospital with a capacity of 90 beds each.

CMRC provides an interdisciplinary clinical approach for Traumatic Brain Injuries which is customized for adults, adolescents, and children. The best rehabilitation services are not only our goal but our ultimate objective is to customize the care plan for each patient and make sure that the patient’s family and their members are integrated into the treatment plan.

Either you joined Abu Dhabi hospital or Al Ain hospital for any kind of our rehabilitation services or even for long-term care you will feel as if you are at #Your Second Home.CMRC