Speech and language pathology is the scientific study of fluency, speech, swallowing, and feeding. This study also covers all the mechanisms of language and speech together with the therapeutic application of augmentative and corrective measures to help individuals with speech disorders communicate and speak properly.
Speech and language pathology is under the discipline of communication sciences and disorders. A speech and language pathologist (SLP) works with people of all ages – from infants to adults. The study is focused on a wide variety of human swallowing and communication disorder that affects people of all ages.
Disorders under the Scope of Speech-Language Pathology
According to ASHA, the following are disorders within the coverage of speech-language pathology:
- Language Disorder: This is when a person finds it difficult to understand others, share thoughts, ideas, feeling, or/and use language in socially and functionally appropriate ways.
- Speech Disorder: This happens when a person finds it difficult to produce speech sounds fluently or correctly.
- Social Communication Disorder: This happens when a person is having issues with the social aspect of nonverbal and verbal communication. People with autism spectrum disorder usually have problems with social communication. Many people with traumatic brain injuries also struggle with this type of disorder.
- Cognitive–Communication Disorders: This happens when a person finds it difficult to pay attention, plan, solve problems, and organize their thoughts. Some of the fundamental causes of this disorder include stroke, traumatic brain injury, and dementia.
- Swallowing Disorder: This happens when a person finds it difficult to eat and swallow. This disorder is often caused by injury, stroke, or illness.